Bibliographic Referencing And Using Quotes
You are advised to check your module or departmental guidelines for academic referencing. The following document is based on Harvard system of referencing. Another system that is sometimes used is the numeric system.
How to collect information.
It is best to keep some kind of record of the sources of information you consult as you go along. There are software packages that can help, for example Procite and Endnote. If you do not have access to these, you could set up a simple table in Word. Alternatively, you could create a running handwritten list or write onto cards. The information that is required includes:
- title (full);
- volume and issue number (for journal)
- URL (address for website)
- publication place;
- publication date;
Why do we have to use referencing?
References are used to:
- Enable the reader to trace the courses you have used
- Help support your claims (to justify the information you provide in your work)
- Acknowledge the source of an argument or idea. If you do not do this, you may be accused of plagiarism (that is, stealing other people’s ideas)
Ways Of Leading Into Quotations.
It is good to set up a 'style' in Word for your quotes, such as italic, indented and a one line gap before and after. If you are writing in normal font (not italic), it might look like this:
There has of course been conflict between dogs and cats since records began. The seminal work, wittily entitled “Dog eat dog” (Smith 2006, p45), reminds us:
We must not forget the Fido and Tiddles War of 45BC, which caused devastation through the length and breadth of Ashby-de-la-Zouch.
You can set up a 'style' in Word by going to Format/Styles and formatting/New style. (That is in Word 2002 or XP. In earlier versions of Word, it was Format/Style/New.) Then you can easily go into your 'quote' style (or whatever you choose to call it) by going back to Format/Style.
Here are some phrases for getting quotations in:
- As Smith has pointed out:
- This is clearly stated by Smith:
- To quote Smith:
- Smith has also contributed usefully (to this debate):
- Smith continues her explanation/ exploration of this :
- Smith remarks that:
- Smith might have been describing this when she writes:
- Apparently, Smith believes that:
- Smith's approach is valuable here:
- It is important to include Smith's contribution to this:
If you are going to quote from somebody more than once, it is OK to say so:
- To quote Smith again:
- As in the case of . . . above, Smith has commented forcefully on this:
There are many ways of launching a quote. Some people like to make them part of the current sentence, like this:
Smith is very clear in her view of the Fido and Tiddles War. For her, its significance lies in the marked increase in self-esteem shown by the Fido Brigade after the Battle of the Striped Kennel. (Smith, 2006, p94).
You might also like to play with fitting your quotation into the middle of a sentence:
Accounts of the battle make distressing reading. Contemporary historians have catalogued such horrors as the pitiful mounds of fur piled up after the Pooch Patrol departed (Fluffkin, 2002, p257) and the grisly task of burning the severed tails which littered the battlefield (Patch, 1900, p26).
‘Play’ might seem the wrong word, but quoting can be fun.
If there are two (or more authors) you simply include them both or all:
It is claimed that government in the information age “will work better and cost less” (Bellamy and Taylor, 1998, p41)
Always remember though that a quotation has to earn its place. Ask yourself: why is this quotation particularly powerful? Wouldn’t it be better to put the point in my own words?
Full references are given at the end of your work. These must be given in a standard format and be arranged alphabetically. Again, using a Word table can help you to sort them alphabetically.
The examples below include:
Title in italics.
You could also emphasise the title in:
The table below includes the more widely used sources:
- Online text-based information
See the end of the document for some more unusual ones.
AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication, Publisher.
e.g GOLOMBOK, S. (2000) Parenting: what really
counts? London, Routledge.
Books 2-3 authors
e.g LI, X. and CRANE, N.B. (1993) Electronic style: a guide to citing electronic information. London, Meckler
Books – more than 3 authors
LEVITT, R. et al. (1999) The reorganised National Health Service. 6th ed. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes.
Chapters in books
AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title of chapter. In: AUTHOR(S)/EDITOR(S) Book title. Place of publication, Publisher, Pages (p. or pp.).
e.g TUCKMAN, A. (1999) Labour, skills and training. In: R. LEVITT et al, eds. The reorganised National Health Service. 6th ed. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes, pp. 135-155.
AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title of document [Type of resource, e.g. CD-ROM, e-mail, WWW] Organisation responsible (optional). Available from: URL address [Date accessed].
e.g UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD LIBRARY (2001) Citing electronic sources of information [WWW]
Sheffield, University of Sheffield. Available from:
e.g. DREXHAGE, J. (2004) Still up in the air. Carbon
finance, January, pp 16-17 [WWW] Available from:
AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title of article. Title of journal, Vol. no. (Part no.), Pages (p. or pp.).
e.g. LU, H. and MIETHE, T.D. (2002) Legal representation and criminal processing in China. British journal of criminology, 42 (2), pp. 267-280.
You could use this table as a template by:
- Copying and pasting the table at the end of your own document.
- Add your own references into the blank cells
- Cut the ones provided for you
- Then sort alphabetically
- You may also wish to format the table
Other formats, including:
- Exhibition catalogues
- Media (video, film, or broadcast)
- Newpaper articles
- Online images
- Papers in conference proceedings
- Corporate publications
- Theses and dissertations
ARTIST (Year) Title of exhibition [Exhibition catalogue}
Place of publication, Publisher
e.g. HARRIS, W (1983) William Harris as designer
[catalogue of an exhibition held at Whitworth Art Gallery, 3rd May-4th May 1983]
London, Arts Council
Media (video, film or broadcast)
Title (year) Type of media. ORIGINATOR (e.g. director)
Place of production, Producer
e.g. Rebel without a cause (1983) Film. Directed by Nocholas RAY.
USA, Warner Brothers.
AUTHOR (S) (Year) Article title. Newspaper title, Day and Month (abbreviated), Pages (p. or pp.)
e.g. BROWN, P. (2002) New foot and mouth outbreak suspected, Guardian, 27th Feb, p1
Description or title of image (Year) [online image]
ORIGINATOR (if relevant). Available from: URL address
e.g. Hubble space telegraph (1998) [online image]
Available from: www.nasa.gov.uk/SPACE/gif233 [accessed 1.11.06]
Papers in conference proceedings
AUTHOR (S) (Year) Title. In: EDITOR(S) Title of conference proceedings. Place and date of conference (unless included in title). Place of publication, Publisher, pages (p. or pp.)
GIBSON, E.J. (1977) The performance concept building. In :Proceedings of the 7th CIB Triennial Congress, Edinburgh, September 1977.
London, Construction Research International, pp. 129-136
NAME OF ISSUING BODY (Year) Title. Place of publication, Publisher, report no. (if relevant), pages (p. or pp.)
e.g. DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, Development Commission (1980) 28th Report, 1st April 1979 to 31st March 1980.
London: HMSO, 1979-1980 HC, 798, pp. 70-80
Theses and dissertations
AUTHOR (year) Title. Designation (level e.g. MSc, MA, PhD), Institution
e.g. MARSHALL, J (2002) The Manuscript tradition of Brunello Latini’s ‘Tresor’. Unpublished thesis (PhD), University of London